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[ 2010/9/10 14:11:09 ]
 

 

                    Chromogenic reagent

Chromogenic reagent is divided into two types: one is common color reagent to check the general organic compounds; the other is exclusive color reagent which is specially designed according to the classification of compounds or special functional group. Chromogenic reagent have lots of kinds, we only give some common color reagent below:

 

1. Universal Reagent

There are four common sulfuric acid solution: sulfuric acid- water (1:1) solution; sulfuric acid- methanol or ethanol (1:1) solution; 1.5mol/L sulfuric acid and 0.50.15mol/L ammonium sulfate solution, bake 15 minutes after spraying at 110, then different organic compounds will show different colors.

Chloroform solution which contains 0.5% iodine is easily indicate yellowish-brown to many compounds.

0.05% neutral potassium permanganate solution, some easily reducible compounds show yellow in light red background.

Alkaline potassium permanganate reagent, the reducible compounds show yellow in light red background.

   Solvent: 1% potassium permanganate solution;

   Solvent: 5% sodium carbonate solution;

 Solventand solventare mixed of equal quantity for application.

Acidity potassium permanganate reagent, spray 1.6% concentrated sulfuric acid potassium permanganate solution (attention to prevent the explosion during dissolution), after spraying heated 1520 minutes at 180.

Acidic potassium dichromate reagent, spray 5% concentrated sulfuric acid potassium dichromate solution, heat at 150 when necessary.

5% phosphomolybdic acid ethanol solution, bake at 120 after sprayed, and the reducing compounds become blue; then smoked by ammonia, the background becomes colorless.

Ferricyanide-ferric chloride reagent, the reducing substances show blue; then spray 2 mol/ L  hydrochloric acid, which becomes to deeper blue.

   Solution: 1% potassium ferricyanide solution;

   Solution : 2% ferric chloride solution;

   Mix solutionand solution as equal quantity before using.

 

2. Exclusive Reagent

As the variety of compounds, so it has lots of exclusive reagent, below we list some most commonly used chromogenic reagents in various compounds:

 

Hydrocarbons

Silver nitrate/ hydrogen peroxide

    Detected objects: halogenated hydrocarbons

    Solution: 0.1g silver nitrate dissolved in water, plus 100ml 2- phenoxy ethanol; then use   acetone diluted it to 200ml; at last add 1 drop 30% hydrogen peroxide.

    Methods: irradiated by unfiltered ultraviolet after spraying

    Result: the spots are dark black   

fluorescein/ bromine

     Detected objects: unsaturated hydrocarbons

     Solution: . 0.1g fluorescein dissolved in 100ml ethanol;

                    . Carbon tetrachloride solution contains 5% bromine.

     Method: spray () first, then set it in bromine vapor container, fluorescein become into  tetraboromofluorescein(eosin), the fluorescence disappeared. Because of the addition of bromine, unsaturated hydrocarbon is prevented to form eosin and keep fluorescence, most to unsaturated hydrocarbons show yellow on the pink background. 

 tetrachloro phthalic anhydride

    Detected objects: aromatic hydrocarbons

    Solution: acetone which contain 2% tetrachloro phthalic anhydride and chlorinated benzene (10:1)

    Method: observe under UV light after spraying

formaldehyde/ sulfuric acid

    Detected objects: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Solution: 37% formaldehyde of 0.2ml dissolved in 10ml sulfuric acid.

 

(2) Alcohol

  3,5-dintrophenyl chloride

     Detected objects: alcohol.

     Solution: . 2% toluene solution;

                    . 0.5% sodium hydroxide solution;

                    . 0.002% rhodamine solution

     Method: spray () first, put it in air for whole night, then smoked 2 minutes by steam, put the paper or thin layer in solution () 30s, then wash it, wet through solution () 15s, at last observe under UV light in dry air.

 cerium ammonium nitrate

    Detected objects: alcohol

    Solution: . 0.2mol/L nitric acid solution including 1% cerium ammonium nitrate;

                   . 1.5g N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine hydrochloride dissolve into methanol, water and acetic acid(128ml+25ml+1.5ml), mix () and () with same quantity before using, then heat 5 minutes at 105 after be sprayed.

Vanillin/ sulfuric acid

    Detected objects: higher alcohols, phenols, steroids and essential oils.

    Solution: 1g vanillin dissolves n 100ml sulfuric acid.

    Method: to heat it at 120 until it shows the deepest color after sprayed.

Hard base kai diphenyl hydrazine

    Detected objects: alcohols, terpenes, carbonyl, ester and ether.

    Solution: 15mg products dissolved in 25ml chloroform.

    Method: heat 5-15minutes at 110 after spraying.

    Results: yellow spots on purple background

 

(3) aldehydes and ketones

 fuchsin / sulfurous acid

    Detected objects: aldehyde compounds.

    Solution: . 0.01% fuchsin, put it in sulfur dioxide until colorless;

                   . 0.05mol/L mercuric chloride solution;

                   . 0.05mlo/L sulfuric acid

     Method: mix as 1:1:10, then dilute to 100ml.

  O-anisidine

     Detected objects: aldehydes, ketones

     Solution: saturated acetic acid solution

 2,4 Cdinitrophenylhydrazine

    Detected objects: aldehyde, ketone and ketone sugar

    Solution: .2mol/L hydrochloric acid of 0.4% of this product;

                   . 0.1g of this product dissolved in 100ml ethanol and then adds 1ml concentrated hydrochloric acid

    Method: after spraying solution or , then spray 2mol/L hydrochloric acid of potassium ferricyanide

    Results: saturated ketone indicates blue; saturated aldehydes reflect slowly, which shows olive green; unsaturated carbonyl compound is colorless.

 rhodanine

    Detected objects: carotenoid aldehydes

    Solution: . 1%5% ethanol rhodanine solution;

                   .25% ammonium hydroxide or 27% sodium hydroxide solution.

    Methods: spray first, then , at last dry it.

 

(4) Organic acids

bromocresol green

     Detected objects: organic acid

     Solution: 0.1g bromocresol green dissolved in 500ml ethanol and 5ml of 0.1mol/L sodium hydroxide

     Method: dip the plate

     Result: yellow spots on blue background

 potassium permanganate/ sulfuric acid

    Detected objects: fatty acid derivatives

    Solution: general color reagent acidic potassium permanganate.

 hydrogen peroxide

    Detected objects: aromatic acid

    Solution: 0.3% hydrogen peroxide

    Method: observed under post-spray UV (365nm) after sprayed

    Results: shows strong blue fluorescence

2,6- dichlorophenol-indophenol sodium

    Detected objects: organic acids and keto acids

   Solution: 0.1% ethanol solution of this product

   Method: tepid after spraying

   Results: the blue background indicates red

 

(5) Phenolic

 Emerson reagent ( 4- Amino antipyrine/ potassium ferricyanide())

    Detected objects: phenols, aromatic amines and volatile oil

    Solution: . 1g 4-Amino antipyrine dissolved in 100ml ethanol;

                   . 4g ferricyanide dissolved in 50ml water, then diluted to 100ml by ethanol.

    Method: spray solution first, and dry it in air for 5 minutes, then spray solution , dry it for 5 minutes again, then put the plate in a closed container which contain ammonia vapor (25% ammonia solution).

    Results: the spots are orange-pink; volatile oil shows red spots under bright yellow underground.

 Boute reaction

    Detected objects: phenols, chlorine, bromine and alkyl phenol behalf

    Methods: put TLC plate in a vapor (including concentrated nitric acid) container 310minutes, then settle it with NH2 (concentrated ammonia solution)

Chloranilic (4-chloro-p-benzoquinone)

     Detected objects: phenols

     Solution: 1% toluene solution of this product

DDQ (dichloro-dicyano-benzoquinone) reagents

    Detected objects: phenols

    Solution: 2% toluene solution of this product

 TCNE (4-CYANO-CINYL) reagents

    Detected objects: phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic, aromatic amines.

    Solution: 0.5%1%toluene solution of this products

 Gibbs (2,6-dibromobenzene quinine imine chloride) reagen

     Detected objects: phenols

     Solution: 2% methanol solution of this product

 Ferric chloride

    Detected objects: phenolic hydroxyl acid amide

    Solution: 1%5% ferric chloride of 0.5mol/L hydrochloric acid solution

    Results: phenol indicates blue, and hydroxyl acid amides shows red

 

(6) Nitrogen compounds

FCNP (SNP/iron cyanide) reagent

     Detected objects: aliphatic nitrogen compounds, such as cyanamide, guanidine, urea and thiourea and its derivatives, creatine and creatinine.

     Solution: 10% sodium hydroxide solution, 10% sodium nitroprusside solution, 10% potassium ferricyanide mixed with water as 1:1:1:3, placed at room temperature at least 20 minutes, then put in refrigerator for several weeks, mixed with acetone in equal volumes before using.

Dragendorff reagent (potassium bismuth iodide reagent)

    Detected objects: aromatic nitrogen compounds, such as alkaloids, anti-arrhythmic drugs.

    Solution: . 0.85g Alkali bismuth nitrate dissolved in 10ml glacial acetic and 40ml water;

                   . 8g potassium iodide dissolved in 20ml water.  Then mixed the two solution as equal quantity, and put it in brown bottle as a stock solution, take 1ml stock solution, 2ml glacial acetic and 10ml water before using.

    Results: the spots are orange

4-methyl umbeliferone

   Detected objects: heterocyclic compounds

   Solution: 0.02g of this product dissolved in 35ml ethanol, then adds water to 100ml

   Method: put the plate in 25% ammonia vapor container after spraying, then take out and observe under UV light (365nm).

Platinum potassium iodide

    Detected objects: alkaloids and organic nitrogen compounds.

    Solution: 10% of 3ml chloroplatinic acid mixed with 97ml water; then mix 6% potassium iodide solution, prepared before using.

 ceric ammonium sulfate/ sulfuric acid

    Detected objects: alkaloids and iodine-containing organic compounds

    Solution: 1g cerium sulfate was suspended in 4ml water, plus 1g trichloroacetic acid, boil it; then add concentrated sulfuric acid as dropwise until turbidity disappeared.

   Method: heat the plate at 110 for some minutes after spraying.

   Results: spomorphine, strychnine, clochicine, papaverine, physostigmine and organic iodide all can be detected.

Ehrlich reagent (p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde/ hydrochloric acid)

    Detected objects: indole derivatives and amines

    Solution: 1% concentrated hydrochloric acid mixed with methanol as 1:1

    Method: heat the plate at 50 for 20 minutes after spraying.

    Results: it shows different color spots.

 

(7) Amine

Nitric acid/ ethanol

      Detected objects: aliphatic amines

      Solution: adds 50 drops of 65% nitric acid into 100ml ethanol.

      Method: heat at 120 when necessary.

26-dichloro-benzoquinone imine chloride

     Detected objects: antioxidant, amide (capsaicin), Bo. Zhong-fatty amine, sec, tert-aromatic amines, aromatic hydrocarbons, drugs and phenoxy acid herbicides.

    Solution: 0.5%2% freshly prepared ethanol solution of this product

    Method: heat the TLC plate at 110 about 10 minutes; then handle it with ammonia vapor.

 Alizarin

    Detected objects: amine.

    Solution: 0.1% ethanol solution of this product.

Butanedione oxime/ nickel chloride

    Detected objects: amine

   Solution: . 1.2g butanedione monoxime dissolved in 35ml hot water, adds 0.95g nickel chloride; then adds 2ml strong ammonia when cold;

                  . 0.12g hydroxylamine hydrochloride dissolved in 200ml water.

   Method: mixed solution and , place 1 day, then filter

 pauly reagen (sulfanilic acid)

    Detected objects: phenols, amines and energy coupling of heterocyclic compounds

   Solution: 4.5g hydrochloric acid dissolved in 45ml of 12mol/L warm acid, diluted to 500ml with water, then take 10ml out and put it in cold water, plus 10ml of 4.5% cold sodium nitrite solution, place it at 0 about 15 minutes, then add 10% sodium carbonate solution as equal volume before using.

 thiocyanate cobalt ()

   Detected objects: alkaloids, Bo, Zhong and tertiary amine

   Solution: 3g ammonium thiocyanate and 1g cobalt chloride are dissolved in 20ml water.

   Results: it shows blue spots on white to pink background, the colors faded after 2h. If water the plate or put it in saturated water vapor container, the color point can reproduce.

 1,2-naphthoquinoine-4-sulfonate

    Detected objects: aromatic amine

    Solution: 0.5g this product dissolved in 95ml water, then plus 5ml acetic acid, and filter insoluble

    Method: it shows colors when react within 30 minutes after spraying.

 Glucose/ phosphate

    Detected objects: aromatic amines

    Solution: 2g glucose dissolve in the compounds of 10ml of 85% phosphate and 40ml water, then add ethanol and butanol each 30ml.

    Method: heat 10 minutes at 115 after spraying

 

(8) Nitro and nirtoso compounds

-naphthylamine

    Detected objects: 3, 5-2 nitrobenzoyl ester, 2 nitrobenzamides

    Solution: . 0.5% -naphthylamine ethanol;

                   . 10% methanol solution of potassium hydroxide

   Method: spray solution first, then spray

   Results: it shows red-brown spots

Diphenylamine/ palladium

    Detected objects: nitrosamines

    Solution: 100ml of 1.5% diphenylamine ethanol solution and 0.2% sodium of 0.1g palladium solution, mixed as 5:1

    Method: observed under post-spray UV (254nm) after spraying

    Results: the spots were purple

 

(9) Amino acids and peptides

Ninhydrin

    Detected objects: amino acids, amines and amino sugars

    Solution: 0.2g of this product dissolved in 100ml ethanol

    Method: heat at 110 after spraying

    Results: the spots were reddish purple

 inhydrin/ cadmium acetate

    Detected objects: amino acids and heterocyclic amines

    Solution: 1g ninhydrin and 2.5g cadmium acetate dissolved in 10 ml glacial acetic acid, and diluted to 500ml with ethanol.

    Method: heat 20minutes at 120 after spraying

 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate

     Detected objects: amino acids

     Solution: 0.02g of this product dissolved in 100ml of 5% sodium carbonate

     Method: dry it at room temperature after spraying

     Results: the different amino acids show different points

 isatin/ zinc acetate

    Detected objects: amino acids and certain peptides.

   Solution: 1g isatin and 1g zinc acetate dissolved in 100ml 95% isopropanol, heated to 80, then cold it and plus 1ml acetic acid, place in refrigerator.

   Method: heat 30minutes at 80 after spraying

 ninhydrin/ acetic acid

   Detected objects: dipeptide and tripeptide

   Solution: 1% ninhydrin-pyridine solution mixed with acetic acid as 5:1

   Method: heat about 5 minutes at 100 after spraying

 Vanillin

    Detected objects: amino acids and amines

    Solution: . 1g this product dissolved in 50ml alcohol

                   . 1ml of 1mol/L potassium hydroxide solution, and diluted with ethanol to 100ml

    Method: spray solution and heat at 110 about 10minutes, then spray solution and dry 10 minutes at 110, observe under UV (365nm).

 

(10) Seroids

Vanillin/ sulfuric acid

    Detected objects: steroidal hormones

    Solution: 1% vanillin sulfuric acid solution

    Method: heat 5min at 105 after spraying

Manganese chloride

     Detected objects: estrogens

    Solution: 0.2g manganese chloride dissolved in 60ml methanol which contain 2ml sulfuric acid

    Method: observe under post-spray UV (365nm) after spraying.

 perchlorate

    Detected objects: steroidal hormones

    Solution: 5% perchloric acid methanol solution

    Method: heat 5min at 110 after spraying, then observe under UV (365nm)

Antimony chloride/ acetic acid

    Detected objects: diterpenoid and dteroid

    Solution: 20g antimony trichloride dissolved in the mixture of 20ml acetic acid and 60ml chloroform

    Method: heat 5min at 100 after spraying, and observe under long wave UV light

    Results: diterpenoid spots show red and yellow-blue and purple

tosylate

    Detected objects: steroids, flavonoids and protocatechuic acid

   Solution: 20% chloroform solution of this product

   Method: heat a few minutes at 100; then observe under long wave UV light.

   Result: the spots were fluorescent

chlorosullfonic acid/ acetic acid
     Detected objects: triterpenoids, sterols and steroids

     Solution: 5ml chlorosulfonic acid adds 10ml acetic acid under the cold condition

     Method: heat 510minutes at 130 after spraying, then observe under long wave UV light

     Results: the spots were fluorescent

 

(11) Sugar

anisidine, o-terephthalic acid reagent

     Detected objects: hydrocarbons

     Solution: 1.23g anisidine and 1.66g o-terephthalic acid dissolved in 100ml 95% ethanol solutin

     Method: spray or dip

     Results: hexose is green, methyl pentose is yellowish green, prntose is purple, alduronic acid is brown

Lead tetraacetate/ 2,7-dichloro-fluorescein

    Detected objects: glycosides, phenols, sugar acids

    Solution: . 2% lead tetraacetate of acetic acid solution;

                   . 1% 27-dichloro-fluorescein ethanol solution.

Take solution each of 5ml, diluted it to 200ml with dry benzene or toluene, and the  reagent can only stay 2h.

   Method: dip the plate

o-amino biphenyl/ phosphate

    Detected objects: sugar

    Solution: 0.3g o-benzidine plus 5ml 85% phosphoric acid and 95ml ethanol

    Method: heat 1520min at 110 after spraying

   Results: the spots were brown

Aniline/ diphenylamine/ phosphoric acid

    Detected objects: reducing sugar

    Solution: 4g diphenylamine, 4ml aniline and 20ml 85% phosphoric acid dissolved in 200ml acetone

    Method: heat 10min at 85 after spraying

    Results: it produces a variety of colors, 1,4-hexanal sugar and oligosaccharide were blue.

dimedon/ phosphate

     Detected objects: ketose

     Solution: 10.3g dimedon (55-dimethyl cyclohexane-1,3-dione) dissolved in 90ml ethanol and 10ml 85% phosphoric acid

     Method: heat 1520min at 110 after spraying

     Results: observe under daylight, it shows yellow spots on white background, and blue fluorescence under long wave UV light.

benzidine/ trichloroacetic acid

    Detected objecs: sugar

    Solution: 0.5g benzidine dissolved in 10ml acid, then plus 10ml 40% trichloroacetic acid solution, and diluted with ethanol to 100ml

    Method: place it under ultraviolet light 15min after spraying

    Results: the spots were grayish brown- reddish brown

paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde/ acetyl acetone

    Detected objects: amino sugars

    Solution: . 5ml 50% potassium hydroxide mixed with 20ml ethanol, then take 0.5ml this solution, plus 10ml mixture of 0.5ml acetylacetone and 50ml butanol, these two solutions should be freshly prepared, and mix them before using;

                  . 1g paradimethylaminobenzaldehyde dissolved in 30ml ethanol, take 0.5ml this solution, plus 30ml concentrated hydrochloric acid, this solution should be diluted by 180ml butanol when necessary

    Method: spray first and heat 5min at 105; then spray , and dry it at 90 for 5min

    Results: the spots were red

 

12pesticides

Methyl yellow

    Detected objects: chlorinated pesticides and antibacterial compounds

    Solution: put 0.1g methyl yellow in 70ml methyl alcohol, then adds 25ml water and ethanol diluted to 100ml

    Method: dry it at room temperature after spraying, and irradiate it 5min with no filter UV

    Results: it shows red spots on yellow background

Bromine/ carbon tetrachloride

    Detected objects: organic phosphorus pesticides

    Solution: 10% bromine of carbon tetrachloride solution

    Methods: kaoru bromine vapor

Manganese/ salicylaldehyde

   Detected objects: organic phosphorus pesticide thiosulfate

   Solution: . 100mg manganese chloride dissolved in 100ml 80% ethanol;

                  . Dissolving 1.3g 2-hydrazine quinoline in a small amount of hot ethanol, dissolve 1g salicylaldehyde in 5ml ethanol and plus 12 drops glacial acetic acid, mix these two solutions and place it about 30min, precipitated salicylic-2-aldehyde-2-quinoline hydrazone after cold, and recrystallized with ethanol. And at last take 50ml this solution dissolved in 100ml ethanol.

   Method: take equal volume of these two solutions and spray the plate

Diphenylamine/ zinc chloride

    Detected objects: chlorinated pesticides (DDT, CPCA, chloro-DDT, Captan, methoxychlor, toxaphene)

    Solution: 0.5g of each diphenylamine and zinc chloride dissolved in 100ml acetone

    Method: heat 5min at 200 after spraying

Bromide/ fluorescein/ silver nitrate
    Detected objects: pesticides

    Solution: .5% bromine of carbon tetrachloride solution;

                   . 1ml 0.25% fluorescein of dimethylformamide, diluted it to 50ml with ethanol;

                   . 1.7g silver nitrate dissolved in 5ml water, plus 2-phenoxy ethanol, and diluted to 200ml with acetone

    Method: place TLC plate in solution and smoked 30min, then take out and spray solution , spray solution , then put it under ultraviolet light 7min

 

(13) flavonoids

diphenyl ethanolamine borate

    Detected objects: flavonoids

    Solution: . 1% diphenyl ethanolamine borate of methanol solution;

        ,            . 5% polyethylene glycol of , ethanol solution

    Method: spray solution first, then spray solution to make the fluorescence stable, at last put it under long wave ultraviolet about 2min

    Results: observe the fluorescence under ultraviolet light.

Antimony trichloride

    Detected objects: flavonoide

   Solution: 10% antimony trichloride of chloroform solution

   Method: spray the plate

   Results: it shows fluorescence under long wave UV light

Aluminum chloride
Detected objects: flavonoids

Solution: 1% aluminum chloride of ethanol solvent

Method: spray the plate

Results: it shows yellow fluorescence under long wave UV light

 Benedict reagent ( copper sulfate/ sodium citrate)

Detected objects: o-hydroxy flavonoids and coumarin

Solution: 1.73g copper sulfate (CuSO45H2O)17.3g sodium citrate and 10g anhydrous sodium carbonate dissolved in water and be diluted to 100ml

Method: spray the plate

Results: observe o-hydroxy compounds under long wave UV light, the fluorescence spots were weakening or quenching

 

(14) Sulfur compounds

Sodium nitroprusside

    Detected objects: thiol-SH sulfydryl (cysteine)double sulfide-s-s-base (cystine) and arginine

    Solution: . 1.5g sodium nitroprusside dissolved in 5ml 2mol/L hydrochloric acid and 95ml methanol; then plus 10ml 25% ammonium hydroxide solution, and filtrate it

                  . 2g sodium cyanide dissolved in 5ml water, and diluted to 100ml with methanol

    Method: spray solutionfirst, and then spray solution

    Results: sulfhydryl compounds were red; arginine changes from orange into gray blue; and double sulfide is show red on yellow background

FCNP reagent (SNP/ iron cyanide)
    Detected objects: objects of aliphatic sulfur-based platform, such as cyanamide, thiourea and its derivatives

    Solution: 10% sodium hydroxide, 10% sodium nitroprusside and 10% potassium ferricyanide are mixed with water as 1:1:1:3, the solution should be freshly prepared and mixed with eaqual volume of acetone

  Ferric chloride/ sulfosalicylic acid

    Detected objects: phosphorothioate class

    Solution: . 1% ferric chloride of 80% ethanol solution;

                  . 1% sulfosalicylic of 80% ethanol solution

    Method: place the TLC plate in bromine vapor for 10min, then spray solution, dry it for 5min and then spray solution

    Results: it shows white on purple background

Iodine azide

Detected objects: sulfur amino acids, sulfur compounds and penicillin

Solution: iodine azide solution-3g sodium azide dissolved in 100ml 0.05mlo/L iodine solution (freshly prepared and solid iodine azide is explosive)

isatin/ sulfuric acid

Detected objects: thiophene derivatives

Solution: 0.4g isatin dissolved in 100ml concentrated sulfuric acid

Method: heat at 120 after spraying

Results: it shows different colors

 

(15) Lipid compound

phosphomolybdic acid

   Detected objects: acid, lipid compounds, fatty acids and steroids

   Solution: 250mg phosphorus molybdate dissolved in 50ml ethanol

   Method: heat at 120 after instigating

Rhodamine 6G

    Detected objects: lipid compounds

    Solution: 1g rhodamine 6G dissolved in 100ml acetone

    Method: observe under long wave UV light after spraying

bromothymol blue

    Detected objects: lipid compounds

    Solution: 0.04g bromothymol blue dissolved in 100ml 0.01mlo/L sodium hydroxide solution

 

(16) Cation

dithizone
    Detected objects: metal ion

   Solution: 20mg dithizone dissolved in 100ml acetone, place in brown bottle and keep in refrigerator

   Method: after spraying this solution then spray 25% ammonium hydroxide

Red acid (dithiooxamide)

   Detected objects: heavy metal ions

   Solution: 0.5% red acid of ethanol

   Method: first, spray this solution, then TLC plate in ammonia vapors under slightly dry   condition

Alizarin

   Detected objects: large cation, rare earth and uranium

   Solution: saturated solution of alizarin ethanol

   Method: directly put it into ammonia vapors after spraying

Potassium ferrocyanide
Detected objects: Fe3+
Cu2+MoVW ion

Solution: 2% freshly prepared potassium ferrocyanide solution

diphenylcarbazide

    Detected objects: Ag +, pb2 +, Hg2 +, Cu2 +, Sn2 +, Mn2 +, Zn2 +, Ni2 +, Co2 + and Ca2 + ions

    Solution: . 1%2% diphenylcarbazide of ethanol solution;

                   . 25% ammonium hydroxide solution

   Method:  spray solutionfirst; then spray solution

   Results: Ni2+ is blue, Co2+ is orange-brown, Zn2+ is reddish purple, Ag +, pb2 +, Cu2 +, Sn2 +, Mn2 + are brown, heat mercury acetate adduct at 80 for a moment, then the spots become blue

 

(17) Anion

Silver nitrate

Detected objects: sulfur anions, arsenate, arsenite phosphate, phosphate and halogen    except fluoride

Solution: 0.10.5mol/L silver nitrate solution be added ammonia and wait until precipitated and dissolved. It should be freshly prepared, and the storage will form explosive substances

Method: heat 10min at 110120 after spraying, and put it under UV light for 10min when necessary

Silver nitrate/ ammonium hydroxide/ fluorescein

Detected objects: halogen ion

Solution: . 1g silver nitrate dissolved in 100ml 0.5mol/L ammonium hydroxide solution;

. 1g fluorescence dissolved in 100ml ethanol

Method: spray solutionfirst, dry for a moment, and then spray solution

Ammonium/ sodium

Detected objects: sulfide, thiosulfate and phosphate

Solution: . 5% ammonium molybdate of 1mol/L sulfuric acid;

. 5% sodium sulfite solution

Method: spray solution first then , and heat at 105 for 30min

Results: sulfide and thiosulfate are dark blue, and phosphate is blue-gray

Strychnine

Detected objects: bromate, nitrate and chlorate

Solution: . 0.02% strychnine of 1mol/L sulfuric acid solution;

. 2mol/L sodium hydroxide solution

Method: spray solutionfirst and then

Results: bromate and chlorate are blood red, and nitrate is orange yellow

 



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